Fisheries and Soil / agriculture education

Lesson-1, Fisheries and Soil 

Agriculture Science:-
                                       The branch of science under which sowing of soil is studied tillage is called agricultural science

Branches of Agricultural Sciences ÷

1. Crop Science÷
                              The branch of agricultural science under which the study of the management of crops and fields is studied is called fishery science.

2. Importance of Crop Science: -
                                                           The importance of crop science is in the following areas.
1. Agricultural production: -
                                               The contribution of crops in the cultivation of various crops is important. Preparing the field, selecting advanced varieties, method of sowing and type of sowing, nutrient management, irrigation management in weeds, plant protection, harvesting and storage, etc. Important works are done.  Huh
2- In planning: -
                           Agriculture provides many employment opportunities like: -
1. For research and propagation work in agriculture.
2. As Agricultural Advisor in Bank
3. Fertilizer and seed fertilizer companies in different
4. In various pesticide companies
5. Companies that make growth hormones
6. Companies in chemicals making

3. In Business: -
                            After graduating in agriculture, he contributes significantly to many business related to agriculture such as: -
1. Setting up of Agro Institute
2. Establishment of dairy farm
3. Trading of agricultural equipment and trading of agricultural produce in edible seeds and agricultural medicines.

4. In industries: -
                              There are many industries for which raw material is obtained from agricultural production such as: -

1. Fodder crops for the dairy industry
2. Sugarcane and Chakundar crops for the jaggery sugar industry
3. Jute crops in cotton for textile industry
4. Tobacco crops for the bidi cigarette industry
5. Cumin coriander turmeric etc. for spice industry
The crops
6. Medicinal crops for the pharmaceutical industry

== × multiplier fertility and productivity × multiplier ==

(¡) Soil Fertility÷
                             Soil fertility is the ability of soil to provide nutrients to crops or plants.

(¡¡) Soil Productivity ÷
                                        Soil productivity is the ability of the soil to produce crops or plants.

*** Difference between dead fertility and dead productivity ***
1. Marda fertility ÷
                                  Providing nutrients to the crops or plants of the dead is called fertility.
2. Soil fertilizer which is not necessarily
Be productive
3. Dead fertility is measured in the lab in the laboratory
4. The sum of the physical chemical and biological capacity of the soil is not called fertility.

2. Soil Productivity ÷
                                      1. The ability of the soil to produce crops or plants is called soil productivity.
2. But the manure that is produced is fertilizer.
3. While soil productivity is measured in the farm in kilo or kindle
4. Whereas the sum of physical and chemical and biological capacity of Marda is called Marda Productivity.


× Factors affecting soil fertility: ÷
There are two types of factors that affect fertility.
1. Natural factors
2. Artificial Factors

1. Natural Factors ÷
                                    Factors that affect soil fertility

1. Ancestral substances
2. Topography
3. Soil Air
4. Climate
5. Depth of soil profile [column]
6. Soil erosion
7. Amount of nutrients present in the soil

1. Ancestral Substance ÷
Fertility of the Murda The presence in the Murda depends on the parent material because the nutrient content is found in the parent material, the items which are less in the parent material are less fertile and those in which the Pethic substances are found are more fertile.  it occurs

2. Topography ÷
                              Sloping Marda is less fertile due to erosion whereas in low-lying areas or plain areas, it is more fertile because the mineral elements of the soil in the uplands flow down to the lower areas.

3. Soil ÷
               By continuously growing crops in old men, that soil bleaching reduces soil fertility while new fertility is higher in newly formed soils.

4. Climate ÷
                      In areas where there is excess rainfall, the nutrients present in the murda are destroyed by leaching and where there is less rainfall, the saline they become saline soil and the saline and wetted soil is not fertile in areas where there is more wind.  Soil erosion is high, soil erosion destroys nutrients, in areas where the winds are low, the soil is more fertile.

5. Depth of soil profile ÷
                                           The soil that is deeper is more fertile than the less deep soil because the root of the plant in the deep soil spreads more deeply and absorbs more nutrients in the water.

6.  Soil erosion ÷
                              In areas where the erosion is higher, the soil is less fertile because soil erosion carries mineral nutrients and in living areas the soil erosion is less, where the soil is more fertile.
7. Amount of nutrients present in the soil÷
                                                                          It has been observed that different amounts of nutrients are also found in different murdas, nutrient is found in more quantity in some murdas and less is found in some of the mardas and in those mardas which have more nutrients.  Marda is more fertile while those which contain less amount of nutrients are less fertile.

Artificial Affecting Marda Fertility
Factor ÷
               The artificial factor affecting the fertility of Marda is -
1. Water Revolution
2 cropping system
3. Marda pH
4. Method and time of soil plowing
5. The amount of organic matter in the soil

1. Water Revolution÷
                                    Lack of more water than the crop requires in the soil reduces soil fertility because excess water leads to a lack of air circulation in the soil and makes the soil fertility effective by removing excess water from the soil to maintain the fertilizer strength of the soil.  Is kept

2. Crop System÷
                             Sowing of the same type of crop again and again at a certain place, due to which the root of the crop absorbs mineral nutrients from a certain area, thereby reducing the fertility power of the soil, thus maintaining the fertilizer strength of the murders by adopting the appropriate crop cycle.  May go

3. Soil pH ÷
                     Nutrient availability to crops and plants is affected by Murda pH. Acidic dead is found to be deficient in calcium and magnesium nutrient whereas Lavani is found to have higher calcium and magnesium content than all other murders.  Calcium does not provide magnesium nutrients to the crop, whereas iron ore aluminum, which has a higher pH value, does not provide for the manganese crop.

4. Method and timing of dead separation
Plowing÷
                in sloping fields increases soil erosion when parallel to the slope leading to lower soil fertility, in sloping fields, soil erosion decreases when plowing on opposite sides of slope leading to higher soil fertility for immediate deep plowing after harvesting.  Increases soil fertility

5. The amount of organic matter in the soil÷
         In those who have high organic matter content, those fertilizers have high fertility and those which have low organic matter content are of low fertility.

Factors Affecting Soil Productivity ÷
1. Soil Fertility
2. Physical condition of soil
3. Soil Status
4. Productivity Demand
5. Means of transport
6. Unfavorable weather condition
7. Disease and insect attacks

== × vast soil erosion / soil erosion ÷
                                                             Removal of soil particles from their place is called soil erosion or moving soil particles from their place to another location is called soil erosion.

Types of soil erosion ÷
There are two types of soil erosion
1. Natural soil erosion
2. Accelerated Soil Erosion

1. Natural soil erosion ÷
                                           The soil covered with vegetation moving from one place to another is called Natural Mud erosion.

2. Accelerated Soil Erosion ÷
                                                   Accelerated soil erosion in a soil without  moving from one place to another is called accelerated soil erosion.

Powers or methods of soil erosion.÷
                                                                  Soil erosion is done by two forces which are as follows
1. By water
2. by air

1.by water÷
                     Moving soil particles from their place to another place is called erosion or water on water.

They are as follows ÷

1. Shower Erosion ÷
                                     This is the initial stage of water erosion, which when the raindrops fall on the ground, it gets dislodged from the original place due to the murda.

2. Layer÷
                 This is the second stage of water erosion in which rainwater carries a thin layer of soil along with it, thus the fertile soil of the field flows out of the soil, this type of water erosion is very harmful from the point of view of agriculture.

3. Drain ÷
                 When the water starts flowing, small drains are formed in the field, these drains can also be of slightly larger size and these drains are destroyed by plowing the field, but the particles of murda move away from the original place and move to another place.  Go to
4. Avanalika ÷
                          These drains are the growing stages of the ravine. In this soil cover, the drains become so wide and deep that after cutting the soil, the soil also starts to cut. This type of erosion is called Avanali charan. This drains are not cured by plowing sowing  And in areas with soil erosion, sowing is difficult to plow.

Air erosion / wind erosion ÷
                                                   The particles of soil have to move from one place to another by air is called air erosion.

✍ There are three types of wind erosion.
1. Suspension
2. Torture
3. Surface

1. suspension ÷
                              Murd particles that are less than 0.1 mm in diameter fly away with the air and hang in the atmosphere and go thousands of kilometers away from their place of origin.

2. Torture ÷
                      Soils where the diameter is between 0.1 to 0.5 mm are bounced off from one place to another due to the velocity of the air and the action of eradication of the particles of the dead is also known as euthanasia.

3. Surface÷
                     Soil particles whose diameter is larger than 0.5 mm are not muddy particles from their place but instead of rubbing on the surface at the speed of air, they move from one place to another, this action is called surface erosion.

Factors affecting water and air erosion
Factors influencing water and air erosion are:
1. Climate
2. Topography
3. Vegetation
4. Human Factors
5. Types of Soil

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B.L.  PANDIT

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